Perivascular (Virchow–Robin) Spaces



Abstract.

Perivascular spaces; also known as the Virchow-Robin Spaces, they are pleurally lined, interstitial fluid-filled areas that surround certain blood vessels in various organs, especially the perforating arteries in the brain, with an immunological function. Dilated perivascular spaces are divided into three types. The first of these is on the lenticulostriate artery, the second is in the cortex following the path of the medullary artery, and the third is in the midbrain.  Perivascular spaces can be detected as areas of dilatation on MR images. Although a limited number of perivascular spaces can be seen in a normal brain, the increase in the number of these spaces has been associated with the incidence of various neurodegenerative diseases. Different theories have been suggested about the tendency of the perivascular spaces to expand. Current theories include mechanical trauma due to cerebrospinal fluid pulsing, elongation of penetrating blood vessels, unusual vascular permeability, and increased fluid exudation. In addition, the brain tissue atrophy that occurs with aging; It is thought to contribute to the widening of perivascular spaces by causing shrinkage of arteries, altered arterial wall permeability, obstruction of lymphatic drainage pathways and vascular demyelination. It is assumed that the clinical significance of the dilation tendencies of the perivascular spaces is based on shape change rather than size. These spaces have been mostly observed in brain regions such as corpus callosum, cingulate gyrus, dentate nucleus, substantia nigra and various arterial basins including lenticulostriate artery and mesencephalothalamic artery. In conclusion, when sections are taken on MR imaging, it is possible that perivascular spaces may be confused with microvascular diseases and some neurodegenerative changes. In addition, perivascular spaces can be seen without pathological significance. Therefore, it would be appropriate to investigate the etiological relationship by evaluating the radiological findings and clinical picture together.

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